What the latest UN science says about climate change

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) produces reports approximately every five years representing the global scientific consensus on climate change, its causes and its impact. Last year’s report discussed the main causes of global warming and the fundamentals of climate science.

It was followed by two major reports this year: one in February on how the world will need to adapt to climate impacts, from rising sea levels to declining wildlife, and another in April on ways to mitigate emissions related to the global warming.

Here are some of the findings from these reports:

MAN’S FAULT, WITHOUT QUIVOCITY

* Last year’s report on the physical basis of climate change unequivocally blamed humans for rising temperatures.

* He also claimed that climate change was dangerously close to spiraling out of control.

* Once rare extreme weather events are becoming more common and some regions are more vulnerable than others.

* For the first time, the report’s authors called for urgent action to reduce methane. So far the IPCC has focused on carbon dioxide, the most abundant greenhouse gas.

* As time is running out to prevent uncontrolled climate change, the authors said it is worth considering the pros and cons of go-engineering or large-scale interventions, such as injecting particles into the atmosphere to block solar radiation. .

* The report states that nations of the world, including the wealthiest, must start preparing for climate impacts and adapt to a warmer world.

URGENT NEED TO ADAPT TO HEAT WAVES, STORM, CHANGES IN SEA LEVEL.

* News of the Russian invasion of Ukraine cut off the publication in February of a seminal report on how the world should prepare for a warmer world.

* With climate change already causing extreme weather conditions around the world, the report urges both rich and poor countries to adapt now to impacts, including more frequent heat waves, stronger storms and rising sea levels.

* The report makes it clear that risks vary from region to region and offers local projections of what to expect.

* Millions of people will face poverty and food insecurity in the years to come as climate change affects crops and water supplies and threatens to disrupt trade and labor markets.

* Disappointing forecasts for the world’s poor have revived calls for a “loss and damage” fund through which rich nations would offset the costs incurred by poor countries due to climate-related disasters.

After a breakthrough at the start of this year’s climate summit, the issue of loss and damage is for the first time on the formal agenda of the UN negotiations.

IT’S NOW OR NEVER “, INDIVIDUAL ACTION MATTERS

* It’s “now or never,” said a co-chair of the report, releasing findings showing that only a drastic reduction in emissions over the next few decades would prevent global warming from spinning out of control.

* The report explored how various emission scenarios would translate into future temperature rises.

* Cities are an important part of the emissions problem, according to the report, but also a source of hope and positive solutions.

* The energy transition to renewables and clean fuels is proceeding too slowly.

* The report not only focuses on fossil fuels and production, but also calls for strong climate action in agriculture, where farming methods and better forest protection could reduce emissions.

* He warned that climate change is threatening economic growth and, for the first time, stressed the need for individual action, calling on governments to agree on policies to change consumption and transport habits to encourage reduction. some waste.

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